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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease is not just a disorder of movement. People with the condition also may have difficulties with remembering, planning, making decisions and being motivated to act.

Many patients lack 'get up and go' and become apathetic, unable to generate drive to do things. Some may develop impulsive decision-making and make uncharacteristically poor choices in everyday life.

We are performing research on:

We're interested in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying these problems and developing treatments for them. We're also testing people at risk of developing Parkinson's disease, e.g. because they suffer from REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) or have a genetic risk factor.

If you want to get involved or find out more about our research based at Oxford University and the John Radcliffe Hospital, please write to:

Professor Masud Husain, Nuffield Dept Clinical Neurosciences, Level 6, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU  or



Leaflets from Parkinson's UK (just click on the titles below):

What is Parkinson's and how is it diagnosed?

Drug treatments for Parkinson's



Husain M & Schott J eds. (2016) Oxford Textbook of Cognitive Neurology & Dementia. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


You can also find out more about our research by downloading the articles listed below.



Zokaei N, Husain M (2019) Working Memory in Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease Current Top Behav Neurosci (Epub ahead of print) PMID: 31347008

Husain M, Roiser R (2018) The neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: A transdiagnostic approach. Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Epub ahead of print).

Husain M (2017) Transdiagnostic neurology: neuropsychiatric symptoms in neurodegenerative conditions. Brain 140:1535-6 PMID:28549134

Chong T T-J, Bonnelle V, Husain M (2016) Quantifying motivation with effort-based decision-making paradigms in health and disease. Progress in Brain Res 229:71-100

Chong T T-J, Husain M (2016) The role of dopamine in the pathophysiology and treatment of apathy. Progress in Brain Res 229: 389-426

Muhammed K, Husain M (2016) Clinical significance of apathy in Parkinson's disease. European Medical Journal 4: 56-63.

Sinha N, Manohar S, Husain M (2013) Impulsivity and apathy in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neuropsychology. PMID:23621377

Norbury A, Husain M (2015) Sensation-seeking: Dopaminergic modulation and risk for psychopathology. Behavioural Brain Research 288:79-93 (Epub ahead of print) PMID: 25907745


Research papers

Fallon SJ, Gowell M, Maio MR, Husain M (2019) Dopamine affects short-term memory corruption over time in Parkinson's disease. Nature Partner Journals Parkinson's Disease 5:16. PMID: 31396548

Barber TR, Muhammed K, Drew D, Lawton M, Crabbe M, Rolinski M, Quinnell T, Zaiwalla Z, Ben-Shlomo Y, Husain M, Hu MTM (2018) Apathy in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is common and under-recognized. Eur J Neurol 25:469-76. PMID:29114969

Ang YS, Manohar S, Plant O, Kienast A, Le Heron C, Muhammed K, Hu M, Husain M (2018) Dopamine modulates option generation for behavior. Current Biology 28:1561-9.

Le Heron C, Plant O, Manohar S, Ang YS, Jackson M, Lennox G, Hu MT, Husain M (2018) Distinct effects of apathy and dopamine on effort-based decision-making in Parkinson's disease. Brain 141:1455-69.

Fallon SJ, Mattiesing RM, Muhammed K, Manohar S, Husain M (2017) Fractionating the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying working memory: Independent effects of dopamine and Parkinson's disease. Cerebral Cortex (Epub ahead of print)

Muhammed K, Manohar S, Ben Yehuda M, Chong T-J, Tofaris G, Lennox G, Bogdanovic M, Hu M, Husain M (2016) Reward sensitivity deficits modulated by dopamine are associated with apathy in Parkinson's disease. Brain 139: 2706-21. PMID: 27452600.

Manohar SG, Husain M (2015) Reduced pupillary reward sensitivity in Parkinson's disease. Nature Partner Journals Parkinson's Disease 1, 15026.

Rolinski H*, Zokaei N*, Baig F, Giehl K, Quinnell T, Zaiwalla Z, Mackay CE, Husain M, Hu MTM (2015) Visual short-term memory in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease. Brain (Epub ahead of print) PMID: 26582557

Manohar SG, Chong TTJ, Apps MAJ, Batla A, Stamelou M, Jarman PR, Bhatia KP, Husain M (2015) Reward pays the cost of noise reduction in motor and cognitive control. Current Biology (Epub ahead of print) PMID: 26096975.

Chong TTJ, Bonnelle V, Manohar S, Veromann K, Muhammed K, Tofaris GK, Hu M, Husain M (2015) Dopamine enhances willingness to exert effort for reward in Parkinson’s disease. Cortex  (Epub ahead of print) PMID:

Norbury A, Kurth-Nelson Z, Winston JS, Roiser JP, Husain M (2015) Dopamine regulates approach-avoidance in human sensation-seeking. Internatial Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology (Epub ahead of print) PMID: 25857822.

Norbury A, Husain M (2015) Sensation-seeking: Dopaminergic modulation and risk for psychopathology. Behavioural Brain Research 288:79-93 (Epub ahead of print) PMID: 25907745

Zokaei N, McNeill A, Proukakis C, Beavan M, Jarman P, Korlipara P, Hughes D, Mehta A, Hu MTM, Schapira AHV, Husain M. (2014) Visual short-term memory deficits associated with GBA mutation and Parkinson’s disease. Brain 137: 2303-2311. PMID:24919969

Norbury A, Manohar S, Rogers RD, Husain M. (2013) Dopamine modulates risk-taking as a function of baseline sensation-seeking trait. The Journal of Neuroscience 33:12982-12986. PMID:23926253

Bunzeck N, Singh-Curry V, Eckart C, Weiskopf N, Perry RJ, Bain PG, Düzel E, Husain M. (2013) Motor phenotype and magnetic resonance measures of basal ganglia iron levels in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related disorders 19: 1136-1142. PMID:24025315

Adam R, Leff A, Sinha N, Turner C, Bays PM, Draganski B, Husain M. (2012) Dopamine reverses reward insensitivity in apathy following globus pallidus lesions. Cortex  49(5):1292-303. PMID:22721958 PMC3639369